February 7, 2006
Guerrilla attacks force projects to be cancelled
United Arab Emirates
Guerrilla attacks in Iraq have forced the cancellation of more than 60 per cent of water and sanitation projects, in part because American intelligence failed to predict the brutal insurgency, a U.S. government audit said.
American goals to fix Iraq’s infrastructure will never be reached, mainly because insurgents have chased away contractors and forced the diversion of repair funds into security, according to an audit of the Iraqi Relief and Reconstruction Program released last week. It is the latest in a series of auditing reports being issued by the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction.
The rise of Iraq’s insurgency was never envisioned by U.S. officials, who originally budgeted about nine per cent of reconstruction aid for project security, the audit said.
As kidnappings, killings and sabotage drove local labourers and foreign technicians from the reconstruction program, U.S. administrators were forced to step up protection for workers.
New measures like armoured vehicles, private security teams and blast walls absorbed as much as 22 per cent of project costs, according to the audit by the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction.
“The whole purpose of those attacks was to drive those contractors out,” said Wayne White. “Lots of them had to leave. They were terrified.”
Planners “envisioned a much more permissive security environment than that experienced in 2004 and 2005. The Iraq insurgency has directly affected the cost of the reconstruction projects, increased the cost of materials and created project delays,” the audit found.
Pre-invasion U.S. intelligence reports said guerrilla attacks were likely, White said.
“But nobody predicted anything of this magnitude in terms of resistance,” said White. “And in part, the magnitude of the resistance was spurred by our failures in reconstruction.”
U.S. officials coped with the gathering insurgency by diverting $5.6 billion of the $18.4 billion US aid package into Iraq’s security and public safety sectors, while slashing projects aimed at restoring the country’s water and electricity infrastructure, the report said.
Funds earmarked for Iraq’s military and law enforcement jumped 55 per cent, funding training and weapons for Iraqi police and troops, prison construction and additional border guards.
U.S. occupation authority planners assumed incorrectly that rebuilding projects could proceed without interference from Iraqi insurgents. The insurgency has had “a very significant impact” on reconstruction efforts, said Greg Sullivan, a spokesman for the State Department. But he said the U.S. rebuilding goals have always been to give Iraq a head start.
The spending diversions forced the cancellation of 60 per cent of the 136 planned water and sanitation projects, including sewage, irrigation and dams. Just 49 water projects are expected to be completed, the audit says.
Of the 425 planned electric projects, 300 will be finished, meaning ambitious U.S. promises to restore Iraqi power will not be fulfilled.
Projects cancelled include $1 billion for six generating plants across Iraq, which will cut back U.S.-funded increases in Iraq’s power generation capacity by a third to 2,100 megawatts The monthly goal was 6,000 megawatts.
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